Chronicles

Churches with their Proud Bells

Churches with their Proud Bells

L’ancienne église de Sainte-Anne-de-Beaupré
© Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec 2006

Churches stand tall in the city as in the countryside. With their bell towers pointing to the heavens, they inspire respect. In the villages, they are often the only public building. They are not only places of worship for Roman Catholics, but occasionally also serve as social, artistic and cultural centers. Moreover, churches offer protection and sanctuary that cannot be violated.

This new series of chronicles on the general theme of Churches and their proud bells will help you discover the architecture of churches in Quebec, from the time of the French Regime to the present. Discover the architectural evolution of the beautiful buildings that have resisted time and admire the magnificent sacred sites that are filled with history.

Click on a title to access an episode or to close the tab.

First episode
The Architecture of Churches in New France
The Architecture of Churches in New France

© Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec 2006

Under the French Regime, the churches built in the St. Lawrence Valley were well suited to the realities of New France. Erected for the Glory of God, the church satisfied human needs.

The first churches built in the early days of the colony (1600-1664) were chapels built by missionaries on Amerindian sites.

Using Native building techniques, they were simple bark structures or chapels built in the style of the "long houses". They had a very short life span. These chapels were built throughout the XVIIth century, on mission sites in the territory.

In the French colonies, the churches were generally wood frame structures. They were fragile and fire was their principal enemy. In 1647, the Jesuits built the Église Notre-Dame-de-la-Paix in Quebec City; it was the first stone parish church in New France. The Jesuit plan, served as a model for several other religious constructions.

The French-style church (1664-1700) evolved as the colony grew. In 1663, King Louis XIV assumed responsibility for colonial development, which had been in the hands of the merchant companiesuntil that time. At this time, the population grew rapidly as many new settlers arrived. In the urban setting, churches were built in keeping with classical French monumental architecture although certain modifications were made to deal with the realities of New France. These sites of worship served as a model for parish churches for many years.

In the rural areas, churches took their simple shapes from the old wooden chapels. In about 1700, the architecture of these churches underwent change. Soon they were built along the lines of the Église Notre-Dame-de-la-Paix in Quebec City, which became the “typical church” promoted by Monsignor de Laval, meaning that the Jesuit plan became the model to follow. In the XVIIth century, the bell was located in the crossing, just as in Europe.

The Architecture of Churches in New France

Chapelle de Tadoussac
© Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec 2006

In the XVIIIth century, the parish church became truly original. The existing churches were expanded, with most of the work being done on the front. This provided an opportunity to touch up the principal exterior attraction of the building. When moving the front, the builders took the opportunity to install the bell at the front of the church, which it would be placed not on the frame of the crossing but on the very structure of the church. The construction of an entrance also provided the opportunity to make a space for the organ. Moreover, the bell could be more imposing, giving more prestige to the church.

Starting in about 1720, new churches were built in keeping with the modified Jesuit plan. These modifications gave rise to a new architectural shape.

During the same period, Recollet plan left its mark on the architecture of religious buildings. This plan, which had no transept, was very popular in that it provided certain savings in terms of cost and time. During these years, a simpler plan was developed. It was known as the Maillou plan. It was often used when a church was built at the same time as a parish was created.

Thus, the architectural models that existed in France were not formally implemented in the St. Lawrence Valley. Instead, they were adapted in keeping with the material, climatic and economic conditions of New France.

By the time of the Conquest, the architectural tradition was already firmly established in the St. Lawrence Valley. The lack of both specialized labour and financial resources slowed the development of a British style of architecture.

To learn about the architecture of churches under the British Regime, we invite you to return on January 23, 2007.

Sources
  • NOPPEN, Luc. Les églises du Québec (1600-1850), Québec, Fides, 1977,
    pp. 3-28.
  • BÉDARD, Hélène. Maisons et églises du Québec XVIIe, XVIIIe, XIXe siècles, Québec, Ministère des affaires culturelles du Québec, 1971, pp. 29-47.

Second episode
Church Architecture from the time of the Conquest to 1850
Church Architecture from the time of the Conquest to 1850

Notre-Dame-de-la-Victoire en 1759
© Bibliothèque et Archives nationales du Québec 2006

Did the end of the French regime result in a significant change in church architecture?

For French Canadians, the transition from the French Regime to the British regime, from 1760 to 1790, was marked by a sense of uncertainty with respect to the future. Given this situation, the inhabitants of the former French colony withdrew into themselves. During this period, the traditional architecture created during the French regime was developed.


Few English architects set up business in the country before 1790. Several French engineers, contractors and architects left the colony. The tradesmen remained here and passed their trades and knowledge on to apprentices. These tradesmen, however, were not very innovative.

The models implemented under the French regime (Jesuit plan, Récollet plan and Maillou plan) continued to dominate. The dimensions of the churches changed since the population grew rapidly (it tripled in 30 years). A new feature appeared and quickly became popular: the construction of an exterior vestry. In the past, the vestry was located in the choir rotunda.

Between 1790 and 1820, prosperity in the parishes, which grew out of the commercial development of wood and agricultural products, resulted in the construction of new religious buildings. English architecture made several inroads, but the traditional architecture of the French Regime continued to dominate in the building of churches.

During this time, Palladianism appeared. Several public buildings were erected in keeping with the spirit of this architectural trend. Palladian architecture had to be adapted to the climate, the human resources available and the materials available in the colony.

Church Architecture from the time of the Conquest to 1850

Église Sainte-Famille de Boucherville
© Fondation du patrimoine religieux du Québec 2003

Palladianism was most unsuitable for the restoration of old churches. This was partially responsible for the persistence of the traditional architecture of the former regime. This architecture also continued to dominate because Roman Catholic religious authorities wanted to affirm the uniqueness of French Canada. The influence of English architecture had no significant impact on religious architecture.

The priest for Boucherville, Abbé Conefroy, a skilled builder, codified a large amount of data concerning the construction of churches. This codification is called the Conefroy description. It was behind the standardization of the architecture of parish churches in about 1800.

From 1820 to 1850, Quebec neoclassicism appeared and spread. The cities were growing rapidly and new neighborhoods were built to house increasingly numerous workers. During this period, several foreign influences brought with them a wind of renewal. Classic antiquity was popular in Europe and the arrival of European specialists, trained in the classical school, stimulated this expansion to a significant degree.

French classical style dominated since it was spread by a renowned professor of architecture, Abbé Jérôme Demers. In Quebec, the religious architectural tradition remained important and Quebec neoclassicism was created by adding elements of European classicism to it.

Religious architecture in Quebec drew its originality in its adaptation of various trends in European art from an architectural tradition that was already firmly rooted here and from the Canadian socio-economic context.

To learn more about a very original Quebec church, we invite you to come back on February 6, 2007.

Sources
  • NOPPEN, Luc. Les églises du Québec (1600-1850), Québec, Fides, 1977,
    pp. 3-28.
  • BÉDARD, Hélène. Maisons et églises du Québec XVIIe, XVIIIe, XIXth centurys, Québec, Ministère des affaires culturelles du Québec, 1971, pp. 29-47.

Third episode
Église Saint-Étienne de Beaumont

Very near Lévis in the Quebec City region, the village of Beaumont perches on a promontory overlooking the St. Lawrence River. This village is home to a large number of buildings with the architecture of the French Regime. A historic jewel, the Église Saint-Étienne de Beaumont plunges us into the past. It stands as a testimonial to the skill of the builders and tradespeople of New France.

The Seigneurie de Beaumont was ceded by Intendant Jean Talon to Charles Couillard on November 3, 1672. The Parish of Saint-Étienne, which had been populated since 1680, was erected in 1692 by Monsignor Jean-Baptiste de Lacroix de Chevrières de Saint-Vallier, Bishop of Quebec City.

In 1721, the church was in very poor condition. On June 2 of that same year, Nicolas-Joseph Chasle, parish priest, presided over a meeting of the people of Beaumont to debate the future of the dilapidated building. Should the church be repaired or should a new one be built? Those who attended the meeting chose the second option, as long as the new church was made of stone. They wanted a solid church, but they also wanted to make the most of the money granted by the king to build churches and presbyteries. The Bishop of Quebec City only allocated that money to those who built in stone.

The construction of the Église Saint-Étienne de Beaumont was laborious. Work didn’t start until 1726. In 1732, the bishop had to intervene since it looked as if the work would never end. The church finally opened its door for worship in 1736. When Father Chasle died in the Hôtel-Dieu hospital in Quebec City, he was buried in that very church.

Initially, the church was built according to the Maillou plan. Moreover, Jean Maillou even took part in the construction. The church has no transept or vestry and its nave ends in a semi-circular choir. Although it has undergone several modifications over time, a glance at the building from the south side gives us a good idea of what the church looked like at the start of the XVIIIth century.

Several major changes were made at the end of the XIXth century. In 1870, a new bell was installed. This bell, which was torn off by the wind, fell on the front steps in 1922. When it had to be replaced, the parish took the opportunity to extend the church at the front. The façade is made of cut stone.

At the beginning of the XIXth century, the interior décor was designed in the style of the Quévillon workshop. Since the church had no transept, an altarpiece covers to entire sanctuary to separate it from the nave.

Wolfe’s manifesto, establishing his positions and proposals for Canadians in the armed conflict, was posted on the door of this church in 1759.

Local folklore includes an interesting story about the Église de Beaumont. During the Seven Year’s War, the British army had been given orders to respect the churches. Despite this, several were burned down in retaliation. In 1759, the English soldiers tried to burn down the Église Saint-Étienne placing lit torches against its wooden doors. The tried to set the church on fire three times. Each time, the flames miraculously went out.

To learn about the Église Saint-Denis-sur-Richelieu, we invite you to return on February 20, 2007.

Sources
  • COURNOYER, Jean, La mémoire du Québec de 1534 à nos jours, Stanké, Montréal, 2001, 1861 p.
  • LACOURSIÈRE, Jacques, Histoire populaire du Québec, Tome 1 «Des origines à 1791», Septentrion, Sillery. pp. 298-299.
  • NOPPEN, Luc. Les églises du Québec (1600-1850), Québec, Fides, 1977,
    pp. 70-73.
  • VOYER, Louise, Églises disparues, Libre Expression, Montmagny, 1981, pp. 11-36.

Fourth episode
Église Saint-Denis in Saint-Denis-sur-Richelieu
Église Saint-Denis in Saint-Denis-sur-Richelieu

© Fondation du patrimoine religieux du Québec 2003

The Richelieu River, on the south shore of the St. Lawrence River, was a strategic location for the defense of New France. Starting in the XVIIth century, forts were built to ward off Iroquois attacks. Later, these forts were indispensable against attacks by the English troops, then later the Americans. The land in the Richelieu valley was very fertile and it quickly attracted numerous settlers.

The Seigneurie de Saint-Denis, on the shores of the Richelieu River, was ceded to Louis de Gannes de Falaise. in 1694. He named his seigniory after his wife, Barbe Denys, who had died there shortly before that.

In 1739, the colonists asked the bishop and the seigneur to build a chapel. In 1740, a modest wooden structure with 23 pews was built. That is essentially all that is known about that chapel.

Work to be a stone church started in 1764. It was completed in 1767 and Mass was celebrated there until 1796. This building was located in front of the current church. It was built according to the Récollet plan.

Since the population grew quickly and more space was needed, the settlers decided to build a new church rather than expand the first one. François Cherrier, the parish priest, drew the plans for the current church. It is believed that he was inspired by European architectural writings. The work, which was started in 1793, was completed in 1796. The church was built in the shape of a Latin cross. On each side of the façade, there is a bell tower. These towers give the building a monumental character.

One of the Église Saint-Denis bell towers was used to call the Patriotes to battle during the Battle of Saint-Denis in 1837. This battle pitted colonel Charles Stephen Gore and five British companies of fusiliers, a cavalry attachment and a piece of artillery against the Patriotes led by Wolfred Nelson. Hundreds of insurgents took part in the battle. Some were armed with guns, but most carried tools such as bats, scythes and pitchforks. This was the only Patriotes victory.

The Église Saint-Denis was the first two-tiered church in Quebec. The dome, which crowned the crossing, was also a first. This dome was typical of French classicism.

Based on old photographs, we know what the Église Saint-Denis looked like. It was changed significantly in 1922. That year, the nave was extended at the front of the church. The current façade is in theBeaux-Arts style.

Father Cherrier started work on the interior décor in 1804. The high altar and the tabernacle from the first church were used. The tombs of the side altars, the altarpiece and several decorations were sculpted at the Quévillon workshop. The pulpit and the baptistery were made by Urbain Brien dit Desrochers in 1818.

The church in Saint-Denis-sur-Richelieu has an excellent collection of paintings. Several of them come from France. During the French Revolution, these works were seized from churches, convents and the partisans of the former regime, who emigrated.

To learn about the Église La Visitation de la Bienheureuse-Vierge-Marie du Sault-au-Récollet, we invite you to return on March 6, 2007.

Sources
  • NOPPEN, Luc. Les églises du Québec (1600-1850), Québec, Fides, 1977,
    p. 210-213.
  • COURNOYER, Jean. La mémoire du Québec de 1534 à nos jours, Montréal, Stanké, 2001, 1861 p.

Fifth episode
Église La Visitation de la Bienheureuse-Vierge-Marie In Sault-au-Récollet
Église La Visitation de la Bienheureuse-Vierge-Marie
In Sault-au-Récollet

© Fondation du patrimoine religieux du Québec 2003

City of a thousand bells, Montreal is known for its magnificent and numerous places of worship of various denominations. One of these sacred sites is worth the trip, as a result of its beauty and its history: the Église La Visitation de la Bienheureuse-Vierge-Marie in Sault-au-Récollet. This is the only building used for worship and dating back to the French regime on the island of Montreal.

It is believed that the Rivière des Prairies, located in the northern portion of the Island of Montreal, was named by Samuel de Champlain. During an exploratory expedition, he lost his companion, François des Prairies, in the numerous islands located in the river. A well-known series of rapids on that river, Sault-au-Récollet, owes its name to the récollet Nicolas Viel, who drowned there in 1625. In 1749, during his trip, Swedish naturalist Perh Kalm, noted in his book, Voyage de Perh Kalm au Canada en 1749 that “...the Hurons threw the priest into the water...”.

In 1696, the Sulpicians moved the Mission de la Montagne, a Huron mission that had been located near Ville-Marie, to the shores of the Sault-au-Récollet rapids. Following this, the mission took the name of Nouvelle-Lorette or Fort Lorette. It included dwellings and a chapel.

In 1720, the mission was moved once again, this time to Oka. However, the chapel remained on the site. Despite renovations to the building, the work seemed inadequate. In 1747, Monsignor Henri-Marie du Breuil de Pontbriand, Bishop of Quebec City, ordered the construction of a new church since the old one “threatened to fall into ruins soon”. Perh Kalm also said: “The church [...] was initially built by converted Savages [...]; it is made of wood and looks old and decrepit, but the interior can be used as such; the priest serving there intends to build a new one, of stone, next year [...]”. The local people used this out-dated building until 1751.

To replace the Fort Lorette chapel, work was started in 1749 to build the new Sault-au-Récollet church. Completed in 1752, it was built in keeping with the “Récollet plan”. It is a simple building with a single entrance and a bell tower over the front.

In 1850, renovations changed the original look of the church considerably. As a result of a shortage of space, the nave was extended to the front of the building. The new façade, which was very imposing, was built in the neoclassical style. The work took a long time and the bell towers were only completed in 1870.

Work on the interior decoration started in 1772. Philippe Liébert, painter and sculptor, built the altarpiece and the pulpit. These two works no longer exist, but the tabernacle for the high altar, which Liébert sculpted in 1793, still does.

In 1800, the Quévillon shop made a bench and two tabernacles. They can still be found in the side chapels. Six years later, the same shop sculpted the altar tombs for these tabernacles as well as the high altar.

A vast portion of the church decor (the vault, the cornices, etc.) was completed in 1820. The interior decor has changed little since then. In the Montreal area, it is the best example of church decor at the start of the XIXth century.

This is the end of our series of chronicles on Churches with their Proud Bells. We invite you to return on March 20, 2007 for a new theme.

Sources
  • COURNOYER, Jean. La mémoire du Québec de 1534 à nos jours, Montréal, Stanké, 2001, 1861 p.
  • NOPPEN, Luc. Les églises du Québec (1600-1850), Québec, Fides, 1977, p. 140-143.
  • ROUSSEAU, Jacques, Guy Béthune et Pierre Morisset (avec le concours de). Voyage de Perh Kalm au Canada en 1749, Montréal, Pierre Tisseyre, 1977, p. 469-470.

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Louis-Amable Quévillon
Louis-Amable Quévillon was a sculptor, a master carpenter and an architect who was born in 1749 in Sault-au-Récollet. He was responsible for the decoration of several churches in the Montreal area. He employed about 15 sculptors, gilders, and carpenters in his shop in Montreal.
Philippe Liébert
Philippe Liébert, painter and sculptor, was born in France in 1732. He settled in Montreal in about 1750. He passed away in 1804. Louis-Amable Quévillon found inspiration in the models created by Liébert, his master.
Neoclassicism
Quebec neoclassicism brings together adherence to tradition, inspiration from the great models and a search for rigor in composition.
Récollet Plan
Plan named after the community which built several churches in New France. These churches had large transepts but no naves, which became smaller at the choir so as to create interior chapels. The nave ended with a flat or semi-circular chevet.
Henri-Marie du Breuil de Pontbriand
Monsignor Henri-Marie du Breuil de Pontbriand was a priest who was born in 1708, in Vannes (France). He served as the bishop of Quebec from 1741 to 1760. He passed away shortly before the surrender of Montreal, leaving the Roman Catholics with no spiritual leader at the time of defeat.
Fort Lorette
Fort Lorette was built in 1696, on the shore of the Rivière des Prairies, by François Vachon de Belmont, a Sulpician. At that time, the river was known as the Rivière des Iroquois. The fort was erected on this site because it was located in difficult territory, at a central Iroquois canoe route. They used this site to enter the island and attack the colonists in Montreal. The fort was built to protect the colony and the mission.
Mission de la Montagne
The Mission de la Montagne was founded in about 1675, to convert the Amerindians and teach them French. François Vachon de Belmont, Sulpician, soon became aware of the need to fortify the mission. In 1685, he built the Fort de la Montagne, known primarily as Fort Belmont. Of the four bastions that made up the mission’s defense system only two survive today. They can be seen at the corner of Sherbrooke and Fort streets, in Montreal.
Pehr Kalm
Swedish naturalist who, during a trip to New France, kept a travel journal published under the title Voyage de Perh Kalm au Canada en 1749. He took scientific notes in which he described not only animals and plants, but also noted down observations about the customs of the people, religion, domestic sciences, mentalities, etc.
Récollet
A “Récollet” is a brother of the French branch of the Order of Friars Minor of the Franciscans. They were the first missionaries to North America (1615). They developed the first dictionary of the Huron language.
Samuel de Champlain
Samuel de Champlain, explorer and cartographer, was born in about 1570, in Brouage (France). He set foot in New France for the first time in 1603. Five years later, in 1608, he founded Quebec. He is called the Father of New France.
Urbain Brien dit Desrochers
Urbain Brien dit Desrochers was a sculptor and cabinet maker working in the Montreal region in the XIXth century. He was responsible for the chandeliers and a crucifix in the Église du Précieux-Sang in Bécancour, the pulpit and the baptistery in the Église de Saint-Denis-sur-Richelieu, the interior decoration of the Église de Saint-Sulpice (with René Saint-James) and the liturgical furniture for the Église de L'Assomption.
Louis-Amable Quévillon
Louis-Amable Quévillon was a sculptor, a master carpenter and an architect who was born in 1749 in Sault-au-Récollet. He was responsible for the decoration of several churches in the Montreal area. He employed about 15 sculptors, gilders, and carpenters in his shop in Montreal.
Beaux-Arts (1890-1930)
The Beaux-Arts model of architecture, which was widespread in Quebec between 1890 and 1930, was based on three principles: the clarity of the plan, the balance of the proportions and the character, which was to reflect the vocation of the building and its importance in its setting.
Two-tiered
The church has a second floor consisting of galleries above the lateral spans of the nave. From the outside, two superimposed levels of windows are visible. In the Église Saint-Denis, the side galleries were installed in 1807, but the windows were made in the years from 1793-1796.
Wolfred Nelson
Wolfred Nelson is a physician who was born in Montreal in 1791. He served as an elected member of the Lower Canada legislative assembly for William Henry, for the Parti patriote, from 1827 to 1830. He then served as the elected member for Richelieu in the Parliament of the Province of Canada, from 1851 to 1854, then as mayor of Montreal from 1854 to 1856. A patriote, he was one of the leaders of the 1837 rebellion. Arrested in December 1837, he was imprisoned for six months, then exiled to Bermuda in 1838 by Lord Durham’s proclamation. In one of his many speeches, he apparently said, “It is time for us to melt our spoons to make bullets”. He died in Montreal in 1853.
Colonel Charles Stephen Gore
Charles Stephen Gore, a military man, was born in 1793. He took part in the War of 1812 (1812-1814) as an aide-de-camp for Major General James Kempt. General Colborne appointed him to put down the 1837 rebellion. He was pushed back by the Patriotes at Saint-Denis-sur-Richelieu, but won the battle of Saint-Charles, on November 25, 1837. He died in 1869.
Patriotes
The name given to those who took part in the rebellions of 1837-1838 in Lower Canada.
François Cherrier
François Cherrier, priest and architect, was born in 1745, in Longueuil. He was the priest for Saint-Denis, from 1774 to 1809. He drew the plans for the parish church as well as for the Cherrier home in Saint-Denis-sur-Richelieu. He was the uncle of Louis-Joseph Papineau, Monsignor Jean-Jacques Lartigue and Côme-Séraphin Cherrier. He died in 1809.
Recollet plan
Plan named after the community which built several churches in New France. These churches had large transepts but no naves, which became smaller at the choir so as to create interior chapels. The nave ended with a flat or semi-circular chevet.

The Récollets, who were also called Franciscans, were the first missionaries in North America, arriving here in 1615.
Louis de Gannes, sieur de Falaise
Louis de Gannes, sieur de Falaise, a military man, was born in 1658, in Buxeuil (France). He married his first wife, Barbe Denys, in Contrecoeur in 1691. He married his second wife, Louise Le Gardeur, in Montreal in 1695. That union produced no offspring. In 1700, he married Marguerite Le Neuf in Acadia. Thirteen children resulted from that union. He died in 1714 in La Rochelle (France).
Wolfe’s Manifesto
“The formidable sea and land armament, which the people of Canada now behold in the heart of their country, is intended by the king, my master, to check the insolence of France, to revenge the insults offered to the British colonies, and totally to deprive the French of their most valuable settlement in North America. [...] The King of Great Britain wages no war with the industrious peasant, the sacred orders of religion, or the defenseless women and children: to these, in their distressful circumstances, his royal clemency offers protection. The people may remain unmolested on their lands, inhabit their houses and enjoy their religion in security; for these inestimable blessings, I expect the Canadians will take no part in the great contest between the two crowns. But, if by a vain obstinacy and misguided valor, they presume to appear in arms, they must expect the most fatal consequences...”
Louis-Amable Quévillon
Louis-Amable Quévillon was a sculptor, a master carpenter and an architect who was born in 1749 in Sault-au-Récollet. He was responsible for the decoration of several churches in the Montreal area. He employed about 15 sculptors, gilders, and carpenters in his shop in Montreal.
Maillou Plan
Plan attributed to a design by Jean Maillou, architect and master mason. He simplified the Jesuit plan, resulting a relatively small church with low walls. The building was simple; the choir, the same size as the rectangular nave, was closed in a semi-circle. No transept or nave.
Father Chasle
Nicolas-Joseph Chasle was born in lower Quebec City on February 18, 1694. After completing his studies in his home town, he was ordained as a priest on February 1717 by Monsignor de Saint-Vallier, the second bishop of Quebec City. Between January and October 1718, he served the Parish of Sainte-Anne-de-la-Pocatière then later served as the parish priest for Saint-Étienne de Beaumont.
Monsignor de Saint-Vallier
Jean-Baptiste de Lacroix de Chevrières de Saint-Vallier was born in Grenoble in 1653. After being ordained as a priest, he served as the curate for Monsignor Laval de Montmorency (first bishop of Quebec Cit, and was later appointed the bishop of Quebec City, from 1688 to 1727. He founded the Hôpital général de Québec. An excessive man, he was on bad terms with Governors Frontenac and Callière, the army, the Récollets and the Jesuits. He refused to allow Molière’s Tartuffe to be played in Quebec City. He had so many enemies that no one made any effort to release him when he was captured and imprisoned in English for five years. He died in Quebec City in 1727.
Charles Couillard
Charles Couillard of Islets and Beaumont, settler, was born in Quebec City in 1647. First seigneur of Beaumont (1672), he was the son of Guillaume Couillard and the grandson of Louis Hébert. He died in Beaumont, in 1715.
Abbé Jérôme Demers
Quebec priest and architect born in 1774. Professor of science and architecture, he served as the director and later the superior of the Petit Séminaire de Québec. Following this, Abbé Demers served as the vicar general of the Diocese of Quebec. He passed away in 1853. Thomas Baillargé was one of his students.
Neoclassicism
Quebec neoclassicism brings together adherence to tradition, inspiration from the great models and a search for rigor in composition. It was best expressed by Thomas Baillargé, an architect who was born in Quebec City in 1791. He was responsible for several works, including the plans for the first parliament of Quebec.
Conefroy description
Abbé Conefroy, the priest for Boucherville, had his church built in 1801. For this church, he adapted the traditional architecture to the needs of the time. In his plan, he noted a great deal of information about the construction of churches. This was a sort of recipe book that focused on economy and planning in the construction of a church. The Boucherville church was the first model.
Palladianism
Architectural trend that developed in England in the XVIIIth century. It celebrated the renewal of shapes from Antiquity in constructions with a neoclassical style. The cornerstone of Palladianism was a search for harmony in volumes with a focus on geometric shapes.
Maillou plan
Plan attributed to a drawing by Jean Maillou, architect and master mason. He simplified the Jesuit plan, designing a relatively small church with low walls. The building was simple. The choir, which was the same size as the rectangular nave, was a closed semicircle. No transept crosses through the nave.
Transept
This is the traverse portion which separates the choir from the nave and forms the arms of the cross, in a Latin cross church.
Recollet plan
Plan named after the community which built several churches in New France. These churches had large transepts but no naves, which became smaller at the choir so as to create interior chapels. The nave ended with a flat or semi-circular chevet.

The Récollets, who were also called Franciscans, were the first missionaries in North America, arriving here in 1615.
Crossing
This is the space determined by the crossing of the nave and the transept in Latin cross churches.
Monsignor de Laval
François-Xavier de Montmorency-Laval, first bishop of Quebec and Canada, was born in 1623 in Montigny-sur-Avre, France. He was ordained in 1647, then made a bishop in 1658 at the age of 35. He arrived in Quebec in 1659 and dedicated himself to his large bishopric, New France. In 1883, Monsignor de Laval founded the Grand Séminaire de Québec to train the clergy. He died in 1708 at the age of 86.
Classical monumental architecture
Classical buildings were to be in perfect harmony with their function. Symmetry, geometric rigueur, and sobriety of surfaces and plans were sought after. Classical monumental architecture opposed baroque architecture which was characterized by ornamental excess, with curves and counter-curves.
Merchant companies
These were commercial undertakings that received a trade monopoly for a territory and which were responsible for settling colonists there. They were also responsible for administering the colony. The principal merchant companies in New France were: the Compagnie des Cent-Associés, the Compagnie des Habitants, the Compagnie des Indes Occidentales and the Compagnie du Nord (which competed with the Hudson’s Bay Company).
Jesuit plan
This plan was named for the first missionaries who built the first stone church in Quebec City. The building has a nave which is crossed two-thirds of the way down by a transept. This type of church is called a “Latin cross” church. The ends of the transept provide space for two side chapels.
Long houses
Dwellings built by the Iroquois people in which several families lived. They were about 8 metres wide and the length varied considerably. Some have been discovered in Southern Ontario measuring up to 94 metres long. They were found throughout Iroquois territory as of the XIIth century. In the XVIIIth century, long houses were primarily used for meetings.